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Tuesday, January 8, 2013

International Standards for Elections

International standards for election stem from political rights and fundamental freedoms established by universal and regional treaties and political commitments. 

Standar internasional bagi pemilu berasal dari hak politik dan kebebasan mendasar yang diperkuat oleh berbagai treaties (kesepakatan) universal dan regional dan komitmen politik. 

These provide a basis for the assessment of election processes by both international and domestic election observers. 

Kesepakatan-kesepakatan ini merupakan dasar bagi pemantauan yang dilakukan oleh pemantau pemilu nasional dan internasional.

The principal universal legal instruments are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), much of which has the force of international customary law, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which has been signed and ratified by over 160 states and is legally binding on all ratifying countries. In addition to having legal force, these instruments have strong political and moral force.

Instrumen hukum universal yang paling prinsipal adalah Deklarasi Universal Hak-hak Asasi Manusia dan ICCPR yang telah ditandatangani dan diratifikasi oleh 160 negara dan mengikat secara hukum negara-negara yang telah meratifikasinya. Selain memiliki kekuatan hukum, kedua instrumen ini memiliki kekuatan politik dan moral.

Other universal treaties also provide standards for the conduct of elections. These include

Sejumlah treaties atau kesepakatan internasional juga menyediakan sejumlah standar dalam pelaksanaan pemilu. Yaitu:

1.  the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms  
   of racial Discrimination (ICERD)
2.  the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of 
   Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
3. the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPWD)

Regional instruments, agreed to by states within a geographic region or as members of an international organization, include both treaties and political commitments.

Sedangkan instrumen regional disetujui oleh negara-negara yang ada dalam satu regional tertentu atau anggota dari organisasi internasional, termasuk di dalamnya treaties dan komitmen politik.

The organizations that have agreed such instruments:
Organisasi yang setuju dengan instrumen regional adalah:

1.  the African Union (AU)
2.  the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
3.  the Southern African Development Community (SADC)
4.  the Organization of American States (OAS)
5.  the Council of Europe (CoE)
6.  the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
7.  the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
8.  the League of Arab States (LAS)
9.  the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
10.  the Commonwealth
11.  the Bangkok Declaration

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